"To get a good mental image of space-time, let us return to 'Flatland' (a 2 dimensional universe populated by sentient 2D geometric forms from

We can think of these 3D space-time worms as existing timelessly. We can use them to produce an animated Flatland by take a 2D plane, moving it upwards (forward in time) and watching the motions of the figures formed by intersections of the worms with the moving plane. Try to imagine a picture like Figure 78 which encompassed the entire space-time of Flatland. A vast tangle of worms of varying thickness! Actually each worm would be a tangle of threads, where a thread would correspond to the trail of an atom. Given the fact that every atom in ones body is replaced every 7 years or so, we can see that there is no single thread that goes through the whole length of one's life.

It is an interesting mental exercise to try to see our world in terms of space-time. Walking through a crowd of people for instance, one can try to see the people as trails in space-time rather than as spatial objects moving forward in space-time. Under this view our world consists of is 'worms' in 4D space-time. The universe at any instant is a particular 3D cross section of this 4D structure."

*Flatland**: A Romance of Many Dimensions*by the English schoolmaster Edwin Abbott Abbott). Suppose that A. Square is sitting alone in a field. At noon he sees his father, A. Triangle, approaching from the west. A. Triangle reaches A. Square's side at 12:05, talks to him briefly, and then slides back to where he came from. Now, if we think of time as being a direction perpendicular to space, then we can represent the Flatlanders time as a direction perpendicular to the plane of Flatland. Assuming that 'later in time' and 'higher in the third dimension' are the same thing, we can represent a motionless Flatlander by a vertical worm or trail and a moving Flatlander by a curving worm or trail as we have done in Figure 78 <see below>.We can think of these 3D space-time worms as existing timelessly. We can use them to produce an animated Flatland by take a 2D plane, moving it upwards (forward in time) and watching the motions of the figures formed by intersections of the worms with the moving plane. Try to imagine a picture like Figure 78 which encompassed the entire space-time of Flatland. A vast tangle of worms of varying thickness! Actually each worm would be a tangle of threads, where a thread would correspond to the trail of an atom. Given the fact that every atom in ones body is replaced every 7 years or so, we can see that there is no single thread that goes through the whole length of one's life.

__A living individual is a persistent pattern rather than a particular collection of particles.__It is an interesting mental exercise to try to see our world in terms of space-time. Walking through a crowd of people for instance, one can try to see the people as trails in space-time rather than as spatial objects moving forward in space-time. Under this view our world consists of is 'worms' in 4D space-time. The universe at any instant is a particular 3D cross section of this 4D structure."